The Political Bureau proved that Charles Tillon also glossed over the paramount, decisive role of the Soviet Army and Soviet people in the defeat of Hitler Germany and in the liberation of France. At the same time he belittled and glossed over the role played by the Party in organising the Resistance Movement and in organising and leading the national uprising in August 1944.
The Political Bureau disclosed the incorrect and even dangerous character of Marty’s and Tillon’s views who alleged that the working class in France could have taken power in August 1944. The Political Bureau recalled the situation as it was then and the correlation of force’s not only in France but throughout the world and showed that the task at that moment was to give maximum support for the speedy defeat of Hitler Germany.
The stand taken by Marty and Tillon is strikingly similar to that of Tito, the traitor and fascist, who also charged the French Communist Party with failure to lake power in August 1944.
The Political Bureau disclosed that Marty who now questions our participation in the Government in 1944-47, never uttered a single word about this before, In this connection Marty not only caricatures Party policy, he actually camouflages the policy of the French bourgeoisie, the policy of national betrayal, the role of Social Democracy which excluded the Communist ministers from the Government and which did everything to get our country to accept the policy of Marshallisation.
Way back in October 1947, at the meeting of the Central Committee held after the first conference of the Communist and Workers’ Parties, Marty took a stand which signified refusal to expose the Socialist Party and its leaders − the splitters of the working class. Now he takes the same stand by directly attacking the Party.
The Political Bureau revealed that Tillon and Marty had hampered development of the struggle for peace in France, that their bourgeois-nationalist stand found expression particularly during the signature campaign for a Five-Power Peace Pact. They, in fact, counterposed to it the signature campaign against rearming Western Germany, although a feature of the Peace Pact campaign in France was that it linked the German problem, the struggle against rearming Western Germany, with the international movement for peace.
The Political Bureau disclosed that for a number of years Marty had sabotaged Party work among the youth. In the guise of left phrasemongering of advocating a more “revolutionary” Communist Youth League, Marty actually pursued an opportunist line. This resulted in the fact that the Republican Youth Union acted as a “non-political” organisation not only in the general election held on June 17, 1951, but at the World Youth Festival in Berlin as well. The Political Bureau stated that by his attitude Marty demonstrated hostility in relation to the Lenin principles of youth organisation, principles always opposed by the opportunists and Social Democrats.
The Political Bureau revealed that Marty and Tillon, by their attitude, had violated the principles of democratic centralism, the discipline which is binding for all members of the Party, violated the organisational principles and the principles of Party leadership, aiming, as is now quite evident, at countering Party policy and its realisation, at imposing an incorrect policy on the Party, at seizing leadership of the Party. Moreover, the Political Bureau stated that Marty and Tillon were in touch with shady and suspicious elements and even with naked enemies both at home and abroad.
Since the meeting of the Central Committee in September, when the Central Committee unfolded broad criticism of the anti-Party activity of Marty and Tillon and called on the Party organisations to develop criticism from below, many members have supplied the Party with information and critical remarks concerning the attitude of Marty and Tillon. This fact fully confirms the counsel given by Comrade Malenkov: “The view that criticism from below can develop of itself, automatically, is erroneous”.
U.S. INTELLIGENCE AGENTS, SPIES AND ASSASSINS IN GUISE OF SCIENTISTS-PHYSICIANS
On January 13, the Soviet press published a TASS report concerning the arrest of a terrorist group of physicians, uncovered by the State Security Organs of the U.S.S.R. The group set themselves the aim of shortening the lives of active leading figures in the Soviet Union by means of injurious treatment. The members include: the therapeutists − all of them professors − M. S. Vovsi, V. N. Vinogradov, M. B. Kogan, B. B. Kogan, P. I. Yegorov, Y. G. Etinger; professor A. I. Feldman, otolaryngologist; professor A. M. Grinshtein, neuropathologist; G. I. Maiorov, therapeutist
As has been established, all these physicians-murderers monsters with scientific degrees and titles, who trampled underfoot the honoured and sacred banner of science, were hired agents of foreign intelligence services. The majority of the members of this terror group (Vovsi, B. Kogan, Feldman, Grinshtein, Etinger and others) had sold themselves body and soul to the U.S. intelligence service which recruited them with the aid of “Joint” − the international Jewish bourgeoisnationalist organisation. Set up by the U.S. intelligence service allegedly for rendering material aid to Jews in other countries, this Zionist organisation, which plays by no means the least role in the evil designs of U.S. aggressive imperialism, actually conducts, on the assignment and under the guidance of the U.S. intelligence service, wholesale espionage, terrorist and other subversive activity in a number of countries, including the Soviet Union. Vovsi, the physician-murderer, now under arrest, received, as he testified during interrogation, from the United States, precisely via “Joint”, a terrorist-espionage organisation, the directive “to exterminate the leading cadres of the U.S.S.R.”
Other members of the terror group (Vinogradov, M. Kogan, Yegorov) proved to be British intelligence service agents of long standing.
Acting on assignments of the U.S. and British intelligence services the doctor-poisoners abused the trust of their patients, deliberately and villainously undermined their health made incorrect diagnoses and then wilfully killed them through incorrect treatment.
At the criminal hand of these foul murderers, masked in the noble profession of physicians, there fell Comrade A. A. Zhdanov, outstanding leader of the Communist Party and the Soviet State and of the international Communist movement. The criminals confessed that taking advantage of Comrade A. A. Zhdanov’s illness, they said not a word about the myocardial infarction from which he suffered, prescribed a regime the very opposite of that which his serious illness required, and, in this way, killed him.
Comrade A. S. Scherbakov, another outstanding leader of the Communist Party and the Soviet State, also fell victim to this gang of American hirelings. By deliberately applying strong medicines and prescribing an injurious regime the criminals shortened the life of Comrade A. S. Scherbakov.
On the orders of the U.S.-British Intelligence organs the physicians-criminals sought in the first place, to undermine the health of leading military cadres, to disable them and to weaken the defence of the Soviet Union. They tried to disable Marshal A. M. Vasilevsky, L. A. Govorov, I. S. Konev, Army General S. M. Shtemenko, Admiral G. I. Levchenko and others. But arrest thwarted their villainous designs, prevented the criminals from achieving their foul aims.
The exposure and arrest of the criminal gang of doctor-killers brings up for judgement by international progressive public opinion yet another evil act of U.S. intelligence and its foul masters − the U.S. war industrial and finance rulers, wallowing in the mire of monstrous crimes.
Seeing in the Soviet Union and the countries of people’s democracy the main obstacle to unleashing a new world war and to carrying out their sinister schemes, U.S. imperialism, along with frantic, slanderous propaganda and the setting up of strategic springboards on the approaches to the U.S.S.R., and the countries of people’s democracy, is sending into these countries gangs of espionage agents, diversionists and assassins for subversive terrorist and espionage activity. As is known, U.S. Congress appropriated, with cynical candour, a hundred million dollars for maintaining these gangs, in addition to the hundreds of millions expended on these dirty aims secretly
There is indeed no end to the bestial brutality of the U.S. insidious, cold-blooded murderers from napalm, poison gas, the bacteriological weapon and wholesale extermination of prisoners of war in Korea to round-the-corner assassination of progressive elements in different countries and of leaders of the Communist Parties, predatory killings of individual statesmen of the Soviet Union and the People’s Democracies − such is the arsenal used by the American slave-owners.
Seeking to strangle the freedom of the peoples, to suppress the democratic forces and implant fascism, U.S. imperialism aims its blows above all at the Communist Parties and their leaders. It was American imperialism which directed the hand of the fascist assassins who tried to murder Comrades Togliatti, Tokuda and Duclos, Comrade Julien Lahaut, Chairman of the Communist Party of Belgium, was assassinated precisely on its orders. It was the U.S.misanthropes, the mortal enemies of peace, democracy and Socialism who ordered Judas Slansky and the anti-state conspiracy centre headed by him to shorten the life of Comrade Gottwald.
Remnants of the smashed exploiting classes in the countries of people’s democracy, the existence of unstable strata of intelligentsia, infected with toadyism in relation to the capitalist countries, with cosmopolitanism and bourgeois nationalism, survivals of bourgeois ideology, the ideology and morals of private property owners, negligence, − this is the soil in the countries of the camp of peace, democracy and Socialism, from which there still stems and can stem the evil subversive activity of the U.S. imperialist spies.
Vigilance, vigilance and again vigilance − this is the conclusion that should be drawn from the uncovering of the criminal misdeeds of the U.S. gangsters by all Communist and Workers’ Parties and first of all in the countries of the socialist camp. No complacency and no dizziness from success, no smugness and conceit! Every Communist, every honest non-party citizen, be he a worker or peasant, office employee or scientist, must always remember that an enemy agent may infiltrate into his sector of work. Ability to unmask the imperialist hireling, provocateur and diversionist and to disarm him in time is the duty of every patriot of his country.
The arrest in the Soviet Union of the criminal terrorist group of doctor-poisoners is another defeat for the U.S.-British warmongers, another crushing blow to their perfidious designs.
Filled with burning wrath and hatred for the U.S. cannibals the peoples of the world have entered to their account yet another grave crime. The hour will strike when freedom-loving mankind will present to the fascist pretenders to world domination this bill of monstrous, bloody crimes. It will demand retribution in full. The U.S. fascist obscurantists and their hired assassins will not escape just punishment!
For a Lasting Peace, For a People’s Democracy !
No. 3 (219) FRIDAY, JANUARY 16, 1953
XXIX ANNIVERSARY OF V. I. LENIN’S DEATH. Report by Comrade N. A. MIKHAILOV at Memorial Meeting in Moscow
All the victories of the Soviet people ape inspired and organised by the Communist Party, created by Lenin and Stalin. The world has never before known a party that fights with such consistency, perseverance and fearlessness for the interests of the working people, as the Party of Communists.
The Party of Lenin and Stalin has won boundless love and esteem by its selfless struggle for the cause of the people.
Lenin and Stalin steeled the Party in irreconcilable struggle against all enemies of the working people, they inculcated in it the spirit of steadfast faith in the strength of the people, the spirit of readiness to advance firmly and steadily towards the goal, smashing all obstacles in its way. The people entrusted their destiny, their future to the Party of Lenin and Stalin, and in doing so made no mistake. Throughout all difficulties and trials, storms and stresses, the Communist Party, beneath Lenin’s banner, under the leadership of Comrade Stalin, boldly and confidently, lead the Soviet people from victory to victory. Lenin always displayed concern for the unity of the Party, for the purity of its ranks, for elevating the title of Party member. Under the leadership of Comrade Stalin the Party has adhered firmly to this Leninist principle. The Communist Party is a militant alliance of like-minded people, an alliance strong in its solidarity, in its organisation, in its boundless devotion to the great cause of Lenin and Stalin, to its leader and teacher, Comrade Stalin. (Prolonged applause).
The Rules of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union adopted at the Nineteenth Congress raise still higher the title of Party member. The demands the Party Rules make on Communists exert an immense beneficial influence not only on Communists. The working masses follow the Party, they learn from the Party and see in its principles the embodiment of the most progressive and most just idea.
Lenin constantly trained the Party in the spirit of maintaining close and indestructible bonds with the broad masses of the working people. Stressing this Leninist demand, Comrade Stalin points out that contact with the masses, the ability to heed the voice of the masses is the key to the invincibility of Party leadership.
The people of the Soviet Union have become convinced from the experience of many years that the Party of Lenin and Stalin has no interests other than the interests of the people, that the Communist Party regards selfless service to the homeland, to the people as its supreme goal. It is this that explains the fact that the policy of the Communist Party is regarded by all the working people of our country as their own vital cause. The struggle for realizing Lenin’s ideas, for the triumph of Leninism, has long since become the cause not only of the Party, not only of the Communists, but of the broadest sections of the non-party people, of the Soviet people as a whole.
The method of criticism and self-criticism is one of the distinctive features of the Communist Party, inherent in it as a genuine revolutionary Party, a Party of a new type. Criticism and self-criticism constitute a special, socialist method of bringing to light difficulties and contradiction and of overcoming them. Lenin pointed out that only a genuinely revolutionary Party, strong and solid, monolithic and united, can boldly criticise itself, bring to light its errors, weaknesses and shortcomings and overcome them.
Comrade Stalin constantly teaches us that self-criticism is as essential to us as air, as water, that the slogan of self-criticism is the heart of the Communist method of training cadres. Proceeding from the counsel given by Lenin and Stalin the Rules of our Party lay down that one of the major duties of a Party member is to develop self-criticism and criticism from below, to bring to light shortcomings in the work and to strive for their elimination, to fight against the pretence of all being well and against being carried away by successes in the work. The Party regards the stifling of criticism as a grievous evil. He who stifles criticism and substitutes it by pompousness and bragging has no place in the ranks of our Party.
The successes attained by the Soviet people in building the new society are truly enormous and are of world-wide, historical significance. Among many insufficiently mature comrades these successes engender a feeling of complacency and carelessness, a blunting of their political vigilance.
In the Great Patriotic War the Soviet Union won a victory without parallel in history. In a short space of time the country repaired the terrible destruction, the aftermath of the war, and made immeasurable progress. It does not follow from this, however, that all problems of the class struggle have already been removed from the order of the day, that now our country no longer faces the danger of wrecking, sabotage and espionage on the part of the capitalist states. The greater the successes of Communist construction the more perfidious, vile and brutal are the methods and means of struggle used by our enemies. The more successful our progress, the sharper will be the struggle by the enemies of our people who are doomed to inevitable destruction.
Summing up the first results of the realisation of the policy of Soviet power, Lenin said that the first commandment, the first lesson that must be learned by all workers and peasants, by all working people is to be on guard, always to remember that we are surrounded by people, classes, governments that openly express the greatest hatred for us.
Comrade Stalin has repeatedly emphasized the profoundly anti-Party meaning of talk about the class struggle “dying out”. “Some comrades”, Comrade Stalin says, “interpreted the thesis on the abolition of classes, the establishment of classless society and the withering away of the state to mean a justification of laziness and complacency, a justification of the counter-revolutionary theory that the class struggle is subsiding and that the state power is to be relaxed. Needless to say, such people cannot have anything in common with our Party. They are either degenerates or double-dealers and must be driven out of the Party. The abolition of classes is not achieved by the subsiding of the class struggle, but by its intensification”.
Socialism triumphed in our country. The exploiting classes were smashed and abolished in the U.S.S.R. long ago. But we still have survivals of bourgeois ideology, survivals of the psychology and morals of private ownership still remain in our country. We still have transmitters of bourgeois views and bourgeois morals − living men, hidden enemies of our people. These hidden enemies, supported by the imperialist world, have done harm and will continue to do harm to us. Convincing proof of this is the case of the group of physicians-wreckers − despicable spies and murderers who hid behind the mask of physicians and sold themselves to slaveholders and cannibals from the United States and Britain.
High political vigilance is demanded of all Soviet people, vigilance excluding any manifestation of complacency, of the idiotic disease of carelessness, vigilance that forestalls attempt by the enemy to wreck and to do harm and helps to expose the enemy agents no matter what disguise they assume. Vigilance must be our constantly functioning weapon.
Besides enemy agents we have another enemy − the credulity and negligence of our people. Not a few credulously negligent persons have sprung up in our midst. It is the credulity and negligence of some of our people that form fertile soil for spies and saboteurs. As long as we have credulity and negligence there will be wrecking as well. Hence in order to eliminate wrecking we must put an end to credulity and negligence in our ranks.
Following the directives of the immortal Lenin the Soviet people must not for a single moment forget that it is necessary to heighten their vigilance in every way, to watch closely all the intrigues of the warmongers and tirelessly to strengthen the armed forces and the security organs of the Soviet State.
Communist education of the people becomes especially important during the transition of Soviet society from Socialism to Communism. Leninism is the ideological foundation for the education of the Soviet people. The Communist Party is strong because it is guided by MarxistLeninist theory in all its activities. Stressing the great significance of Marxism-Leninism Comrade Stalin has repeatedly pointed out that of all the Party’s treasures the most important and valuable is its ideological treasure
The Lenin-Stalin Party inculcates in the Soviet people a Communist attitude to labour, to socialist property;: it develops in them a lofty sense of duly to society, cultivates the ideas of Soviet patriotism and inviolable friendship of the peoples. The Party cultivates and promotes with loving care the finest traits of Soviet people, the noble features of builders of Communist society.
Socialist ideology holds sway in our country. It by no means follows from this however that any, even the least slackening in the ideological and educational work of the Party is permissible. Any weakening of socialist ideology leads to the strengthening of bourgeois ideology. Serious shortcomings in ideological work were sharply criticized at the XIX Party Congress. The task is to ensure, on the basis of Leninism, an advance in the educational work of all Party organizations.
All the work of the Party is carried out through the medium of its cadres. The success of the failure of the work depends on the selection, education and training of cadres. Lenin and Stalin have always attached exceptional significance to selecting cadres, to verifying how the work is carried out as the decisive prerequisite for organisational work. Cadres decide everything, Comrade Stalin teaches us
We must persistently apply the Lenin-Stalin principles of selecting and training cadres. In the light of the tasks set by the XIX Party Congress these questions must be in the centre of the work of Party organisations
There can be no doubt whatsoever that the Lenin-Stalin Party will, with honour, fulfil its historic tasks. Inspired by its great leader and teacher, Comrade Stalin, the Communist Party is firmly and confidently leading the Soviet people to the designated goal
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union has won and is winning great victories because in everything and at all times it has been loyal to Leninism, because it sacredly cherishes and carries out Lenin’s behests and designs.
The Marxist-Leninist theory by which our Party is guided is being constantly developed and enriched with new experience. Leninism as applied to the new era, the era of building Communist society, is further developed in the brilliant works of Comrade Stalin, wise leader and teacher of the Party, of the Soviet people and of all progressive mankind. (Prolonged applause).
Beneath the red militant banner of Lenin and Stalin our Party fought for the victory and consolidation of the new social system in the Soviet country and won this victory. Beneath the banner of Lenin, under the brilliant leadership of the great continuer of Lenin’s cause − Comrade Stalin − the Communist Party and the Soviet people will achieve the building of Communism. (Applause).
Long live Leninism! (Applause).
Long live the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Party of Lenin and Stalin, the inspirer and organiser of all our victories! (Applause).
Long live the great continuer of Lenin’s cause, our wise leader and teacher, Comrade Stalin! (Tumultuous applause).
Beneath the banner of Lenin, under the leadership of Stalin, forward, to the victory of Communism! (Tumultuous prolonged applause expressing fervent love for the leader of all progressive mankind, Comrade Stalin. All rise).
For a Lasting Peace, For a People’s Democracy !
No. 4 (220) FRIDAY, JANUARY 23, 1953
ON CLASS STRUGGLES IN COUNTRIES OF PEOPLE’S DEMOCRACY.
Alexej Cepicka, Member, presidium, Central Committee, Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
Socialist construction in the European countries of people’s democracy is taking place in conditions of sharpening class struggle.
Lenin and Stalin teach us that the transition from capitalism to Socialism cannot proceed peacefully, without bitter class struggle; they teach us that Socialism is achieved only by means of class struggle. Way back in 1919, Lenin, developing the teaching on the dictatorship of the proletariat, pointed out that the dictatorship of the proletariat is the continuation of the class struggle of the proletariat but in new forms.
The historic victory of the Soviet Army over Hitler fascism was a decisive condition for the rise of the countries of people’s democracy. The fraternal aid rendered by the mighty Soviet Union saved these countries from civil war and the horrors of foreign intervention. However, the continuation of the class struggle in new forms in the condition of the dictatorship of the proletariat, as indicated by V. I. Lenin, are characteristic for all countries of people’s democracy. The resistance of the exploiters takes on different forms and is manifested in political and economic life, and in the ideological sphere.
Collapse of Counter-Revolutionary Plans of World Reaction
After the liberation of the countries of Central and South Eastern Europe by the heroic Soviet Army the exploiting classes, relying on their political parties, tried to prevent the establishment of the new socialist system in these countries. They calculated on frustrating democratic changes and on preserving capitalism with the help of these parties. Representatives of the bourgeois parties sought, by means of demagogic speeches in parliament, to sow mistrust in the strength of the working class, mistrust of the Communist Parties and the Soviet Union. The bourgeoisie concentrated in the non-Communist parties the hangers-on of capitalism and fascism, the betrayers of the people whom it saved from just punishment, and the reactionary clergy. Organising resistance to the new system, the bourgeoisie relied in all countries of people’s democracy on the Right-wing Social Democrats, the tried servants of capitalism and betrayers of working-class interests.
There is not a single people’s-democratic country in which the criminal activity of bourgeois political parties is not carried out under the leadership of the imperialist aggressors and their diplomatic establishments and representative organs. It was only the presence of Soviet troops which in the early phase prevented the bourgeoisie in the People’s Democracies from unleashing a bloody civil war with the help of foreign armed intervention, from attempting to restore capitalist rule by force, against the will and interests of the people.
The outcome of the attempts by the bourgeoisie to organise anti-popular putsches and to seize power generally known. In all the countries of people’s democracy the bourgeoisie, in the final analysis, suffered defeat; the non-Communist parties were purged of traitors and the working people, under the leadership of the Communist and Workers’ Parties, relying on the selfless extensive aid of the Soviet Union, took the road of socialist construction. As a result of this struggle there strengthened and developed the people’s democratic states as a form of the dictatorship of the proletariat, called upon to smash the resistance of the overthrown exploiting classes, to rally all working people around the proletariat and to arm the revolution for struggle against the insidious machinations of the foreign enemy − imperialism.
After this defeat, the bourgeoisie, acting on the orders of the U.S. imperialists, threw its reserves onto the front of class struggle. The imperialists began forming these reserves long before the second world war, in the course of the war and in the post-war period. Long before the war the chieftains of the imperialist camp discerned the danger which the Communist Parties constituted to the rule of world capitalism, parties that were becoming stronger year by year and growing all the time. It is precisely this that explains why imperialist reaction, using all ways and means, sent its agents, spies and traitors into the Communist Parties with assignment to smash them from within, to sap their strength. In this way the imperialists succeeded in creating inside the Communist Parties agencies which were to further the restoration of capitalism in the countries of people’s democracy. But only one of these fifth columns in the service of the U.S.-British imperialists − the gang of Tito spies and assassins − succeeded in carrying through its black act of foul betrayal of the people’s interests. The exposure of the criminal Tito gang which once again plunged the peoples of Yugoslavia into the grim capitalist slavery was a crushing blow to the machinations of the enemies of the people’s democratic countries. The vigilance of the Communist and Workers’ Parties helped to frustrate in good time the criminal designs of the espionage-conspiracy gangs of Rajk in Hungary, Kostov in Bulgaria, Xoxe in Albania, Slansky in Czechoslovakia, Gomulka-Spyhalski in Poland.
The exposure of the fifth column which Slansky organised on the orders of the U.S. imperialists shows most strikingly the dangerous forms of struggle to which the class enemy resorts in order to frustrate socialist construction. The trial of the farreaching, anti-state conspiracy centre, headed by Slansky, revealed that the subversive and wrecking activity of the conspirators was a vital link in the war plans of the U.S. imperialists in preparing an assault against the Soviet Union and the countries of people’s democracy. At this trial there was also exposed the role of international Zionism as an agency of U.S. imperialism, an agency used by the enemy in order to infiltrate into the Communist Parties. Hence, these fifth columns, which constituted the reserves thrown into battle also sustained defeat. The attempts by the enemies of democracy and Socialism to seize power in the Communist and Workers’ Parties and in the people’s-democratic countries were frustrated.
But the class struggle in the countries of people’s democracy is not confined simply to attempts by reaction to seize power and restore capitalism.
Having nationalised large-scale industry and the banks and having liquidated ownership of land by landlords, the people’s democratic states deprived the capitalists and landlords of their economic base. But in these countries there still remain remnants of exploiters who have had their enterprises taken away from them, former bankers and landlords, big merchants, reactionary military, the clerical hierarchy and reactionary civil servants. There are the kulaks, the most brutal exploiting class. All these hostile elements constitute the pillar on which the Western imperialists rely in their undermining activity against the countries of people’s democracy.
The imperialists seek in every way to support and encourage the resistance of all these hostile elements. They send spies, assassins and terrorists into these countries with a view to hampering by subversive means the advance of the working people towards their final goal. The aim of the wrecker-criminals is, in the first place, sabotage in the economic sphere, in industry and agriculture. They organise espionage and sabotage in mills and factories, on, the railways and in the countryside; they resort to arson, intimidation and assassination, seeking to do as much harm as possible to the economy and in this way to prevent the establishment of the economic base of the new, socialist society, to disrupt the peaceful life of the working people.
But vain are the attempts of the enemies to frustrate the peaceful socialist construction. Smashing the frantic resistance of the class enemies the working people in all people’s democratic countries are at the same time successfully fulfilling and over fulfilling their national-economic plans, confidently advancing forward towards a happy, well-to-do life.
Intensified Struggle on Ideological Front
Bitter class struggle is also underway on the ideological front. From the first days of the liberation by the Soviet Army of a number of countries in Central and South-East Europe from the Hitler yoke, the bourgeoisie, which long before the outbreak of World War II had bartered the national interests of their countries to the Hitler fascists and then to the U.S.-British imperialists, sought to cover up this tact, to deceive the masses, spreading false theories about class harmony. After the defeat of Hitler fascism the bourgeoisie in the countries of people’s democracy tried to assert that all, without exception, that is, exploiters and their victims − the exploited, suffered under the yoke of Hitler fascism and that all, without exception, fought against this fascist yoke. In this way the bourgeoisie wanted to distract the attention of the working people from the internal forces of reaction, to make them forget that the bourgeoisie had collaborated with the Nazi thugs and that afterwards they tried to harness the peoples to the yoke of U.S.-British imperialism, to make them forget the suffering, poverty and exploitation which the “native” bourgeoisie brought upon the working class and working population. But the bourgeoisie did not succeed in deceiving the working people. Thanks to the firmness and steadfastness of the Communist Parties, which headed the struggle against the Hitler oppressors, the Marx-Lenin theory of class struggle became in all countries the mighty weapon of the working people for liberation from capitalist exploitation.
There collapsed also all the attempts of the enemy who penetrated into the Communist and Workers’ Parties to distract them from their leading role in the class struggle by means of the old, hostile Bukharin theory about the peaceful growth over of capitalism into Socialism. The Bukharin capitulatory theory about the dying out of the class struggle in the period of the dictatorship of the proletariat, exposed and smashed by Comrade Stalin, likewise suffered defeat in the countries of people’s democracy.
Bourgeois nationalism and cosmopolitanism are particularly dangerous weapons used by the enemies of the people. History teaches that the bourgeoisie resorts to nationalism in order to distract the attention of the masses from the class struggle and to utilise the working-class movement in its own interests. The bourgeoisie in the countries of people’s democracy strove to act in this manner.
The exploiting classes are widely using cosmopolitanism − the poisoned weapon of U.S. imperialism − in the ideological struggle. Cosmopolitanism is manifested, on the one hand, in cultivating among the masses mistrust in the strength of the people, in denying patriotism, national pride and national consciousness, in scorning the role of Soviet socialist culture, art and science, the role of proletarian internationalism, and on the other, in cultivating fulsome adoration of the Western way of life, capitalist technique, decadent bourgeois culture and so on.
The bourgeoisie uses in its criminal aims also the clergy who are hostile to the people’s-democratic system and particularly the reactionary hierarchy of the Catholic church.
But all this did not help the exploiters. Educated by the Communist and Workers’ Parties, the working people in the people’s democratic countries are becoming more and more convinced from personal experience that they can correctly solve all questions of life in their country only if they are guided by the teaching of Marx-Engels-Lenin-Stalin.
The struggle on the ideological front continues and is very complex in character. We need to wage an irreconcilable struggle against bourgeois ideology, to step, up Communist education of the working people.
Inculcation of New Labour Discipline
The overthrow of capitalist rule in the people’s-democratic countries did not destroy all the roots of capitalism. Lenin teaches that the petty bourgeoisie in town and countryside daily and hourly throw up from their ranks: capitalists, both big and small, and that these capitalist elements do all in their power to preserve their existence. I resistance can be overcome only in bitter class struggle. Since the working peasantry has not yet been completely won for collective agriculture, and since part of it is still wavering, adhering to private-property farming, the class enemy strives to attract the working peasantry onto his side.
Right from the inception of the people’s democratic countries the working class realised that it was necessary to win the working peasantry to it side as a reliable and firm ally. The land reform carried out on a wide scale in the countries of people’s democracy, and the correct policy of the Communist and Workers’ Parties in the sphere of agriculture, a policy based, on the one hand, on supporting and convincing the working peasantry, and, on the other, on restricting and dislodging the capitalist elements created favourable conditions for binding the working peasants to the working class by firm bonds and common interests. The development of the co- operative movement in the countryside is living proof that here too, in the process of class struggle, the resistance of the exploiting elements is being overcome and that in all the countries of people’s democracy the idea of large-scale agriculture of joint cultivation, is making rapid headway, despite frantic resistance on the part of the kulaks.
The people’s-democratic countries, being young countries, did not have sufficient specialists of working-class and working-peasant origin for the work of state and economic administration. Hence, they had to employ the old intelligentsia both in state administration and in all branches of the national economy, to win to their side all honest specialists and reeducate them. The employment of the old specialists under the leadership and control of the working class was accompanied by a number of difficulties, since not all those who formerly worked for the bourgeoisie were ready to work honestly and conscientiously for the people’s-democratic states, to share their experience with the working people. The trials, and especially the trial of the anti-state conspiracy centre headed by Slansky, established that it was through these old specialistssaboteurs that the overthrown bourgeoisie directed its main blow at the very heart of the countries of people’s democracy and unfolded wide subversive activity.
The consolidation of the people’s-democratic system and the successful development of socialist construction − striking testimony to the great force of the Marxist-Leninist ideas − exert a powerful influence. In the matter of re-educating the old intelligentsia for whom the people’s-democratic state provides unprecedented opportunities for applying their knowledge and abilities. Simultaneously, the people’s-democratic countries are conducting large-scale training of specialists from the ranks of the workers, from among the working population.
One of the main forms of class struggle in the epoch of the dictatorship of the proletariat is the inculcation of a new discipline, Lenin wrote: “Does not class struggle in the transition period from capitalism to Socialism lie precisely in the fact that it is essential to uphold the interests of the working class against encroachments by the handful, groups and sections of workers who cling might and main to capitalist habits and look on the Soviet state in the same way as before: give ‘it’ as little as possible and as poor quality as possible and grab from ‘it’ as much as possible”.
Education in the spirit of the new discipline constitutes struggle for a socialist attitude toward labour, towards state and public properly, a struggle against the survivals of private property, against private-property egoism, etc.
In inculcating the new, conscious discipline, the Party and the state utilise as their main weapon the weapon of convincing people. It is essential to ensure that every working man becomes convinced that Socialism cannot be built without conscious discipline. Stubborn struggle for conscious discipline must be waged until every working man is convinced that a bad attitude towards labour on his part only helps the class enemy.
Invaluable Significance of Aid of the U.S.S.R. and its Experience
The experience of the Soviet Union, the country in which the exploiting classes have been abolished, is of great significance for the working people of the countries of people’s democracy stepping out along the road to Socialism. From this experience they learn how to fight against their class enemies and to triumph over them. The aid and support rendered by the Soviet Union enables the working people in these countries to cope successfully with all difficulties and overcome all the obstacles in the struggle for the new life, for Socialism.
As distinct from the Soviet people who, after the victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution, had to fight against enemies on the fronts of the Civil War, against the armed intervention of the imperialists, the working people of the countries of people’s democracy, thanks to the Soviet Union, were spared this. Had there been no Soviet Union, then the imperialists, undoubtedly, just as they did after the October Revolution, would, without hesitating, have organised joint intervention against the people’s-democratic countries in order to smash the forces of democracy and Socialism.
The liberation of the people’s-democratic countries by the heroic Soviet Army created particularly favourable conditions for the working people to deal with their own exploiters without civil war. It goes without saying, however, that the winning of political power by the working class under the leadership of the Communist and Workers’ Parties, took place in conditions of bitter and complicated class struggle in the political, economic and ideological spheres. In this struggle there was achieved unity of the working class which won the majority of the population to its side, and the people’s democratic system triumphed.
For a Lasting Peace, For a People’s Democracy !
No. 6 (222) FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 6, 1953
“Joint” − Branch of U.S. Secret Service
Charity, it used to be said, covers a multitude of sins. In our days “charity” is shamelessly used by the U.S. imperialist pretenders to world domination as a cover for the espionage, sabotage, poisoning and assassination committed by their agents − spies and saboteurs − in many countries.
The Jewish bourgeois-nationalist organisation “Joint”, or to give it its full name “The Joint Distribution Committee”, is one of the so-called “charity” organisations through the medium of which the American espionage organs conduct their “cloak and dagger” work. Formed in the United States way back in the days or World I at by wealthy bankers and capitalists − the Warburgs, Morgenthaus, Guggenheims and their ilk for the alleged purpose of providing charity, for their co-religionists in other countries “Joint”, as pointed out recently in the “Ce Soir” by Georges Soria, well-known French journalist, “is wholly and completely dependent on the U.S. secret service”. Through the medium of “Dillon, Reed and Company”, the chiefs of which maintain close contact with their opposite numbers in “Joint”, the threads stretch to the U.S. Government and to the notorious warmongers Harriman and Draper.
Irrefutable evidence and documentary data from different countries prove that “Joint”, through its ultra-reactionary directors, is engaged in activities as far removed from charity as heaven is from earth. Actually, “Joint” is an international Zionist espionage-saboteur organisation working for U.S. intelligence agencies, in accordance with their plans and instructions, far beyond the borders of the U.S.A. The criminal activity of “Joint”, spearheaded against the people’sdemocratic countries, is directed by its “European Department” Headed by J. Schwarts, an old time American intelligence agent.
The espionage and terrorist activity of “Joint”, as an instrument of the U.S. secret service, was exposed way back in 1949, during the Rajk trial in Hungary. In December of that year the head of “Joint” in Hungary, an American named Jacobson, who operated in the country was condemned and expelled from Hungary. A few months later this exposed spy addressed a meeting in Toronto, Canada, in the course of which he openly boasted about his subversive work in Hungary.
To the disclosures made at the Rajk trial in Hungary there is now added the confessions made in November last year by Slansky and his henchmen in the anti-state conspiracy centre in Czechoslovakia. It was established at this trial that under the “Joint” signboard American secret service agents carried on large-scale subversive activity in Czechoslovakia; they engaged, as was stated in the indictment, in “espionage, sabotage, black-market currency machinations, speculation, and contraband”.
In the Soviet Union where “Joint” activity was banned, carefully camouflaged agents of this organisation operated from the underground. The majority of the exposed and recently arrested doctor-murderers who had set themselves the aim, by means of injurious treatment to shorten the lives of prominent figures in the Soviet Union, belonged to the criminal Zionist organisation. Vovsi, one of these degenerates, confessed that it was precisely “Joint” which instructed him directly to “exterminate leading cadres of the U.S.S.R.”.
The true aims of Joint’s” “charity-men” are clearly revealed by the fact that at the beginning of 1950 they took part in the “American Conference to Combat Communism”, held in the Hotel Astor in New York. It was at this conference that Carey, the reactionary trade union leader, earned the applause of the billionaires by saying that in the next “war we will join the fascists to fight the Communists”.
“Joint’s” character as an organisation patronised by the American secret service is also seen in the flat refusal of this “charity” gang to advance a single cent to the Jewish organisations in Western Europe which grew out of the resistance movement and which are too progressive for Washington. But “Joint” is most generous when it comes to subsidising Trotskyites, Mensheviks, Social Revolutionaries, bourgeois nationalists, members of kulak parties and other spies and betrayers who were expelled from or who fled the U.S.S.R. and the countries of people’s democracy, the scum of society who, to quote “Ce Soir”, “found refuge in Jewish bourgeois-nationalist organisations directed by U.S. imperialism”.
The annual conference of the “Joint” organisation, held at the “beginning of January, approved its budget for 1953 to the amount of 25 million dollars. That these millions are not at all designed for charity is clearly evident from Senator Lehman’s address to the conference which from beginning to end, was a mass of foul insinuations and slander against the countries of democracy and Socialism.
Such, then, is the true physiognomy of “Joint”, the American secret service adjunct masquerading as a charity organisation. Its organisers and inspirers have now been pilloried. In vain do U.S. State Department sponsors of “Joint” and the reactionary American press spew out streams of lies and slander against the peace-loving democratic countries, bewailing yet another failure of their agency. All honest people on earth hold in execration the Zionist savages, spies and assassins who tried to masquerade in the guise of charity. All honest people are whetting their vigilance in relation to “Joint” and similar “charity” organisations of the U.S. espionage.
For a Lasting Peace, For a People’s Democracy !
No. 6 (222) FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 6, 1953
It is quite understandable that the U.S. imperialists have no intention of reconciling themselves to the regeneration of the Chinese people, to the existence of Soviet Chinese alliance and to the failure of their evil plans for enslaving and plundering China. They are plotting new designs aimed at extending aggression in Asia and throughout the world. The “Joint Defence” treaty signed between the U.S. and the Philippines and the tripartite U.S., Australia and New Zealand “Security Agreement” constitute, in particular, a serious threat to the peoples of Asia. The “bilateral treaty” of the U.S. rulers with the Chiang Kai-shek gang, the so-called U.S. “de neutralisation” of the Chinese island of Taiwan, and the U.S. provocations on the Burma-China frontier are also aimed at unleashing a new war. The raids by American air pirates on China’s border regions, the deliberate American frustration of the truce negotiation in Panmunjom, their use of chemical and bacteriological weapons, the monstrous crimes of the U.S. barbarians in the prisoner of war camps, the multitudinous obstacles raised by the United States in order to prevent representatives of People’s China from taking their lawful place in Uno, − all these actions are also designed to further the aim of unleashing a new war.
For the purpose of amassing new fabulous profits from the blood and lives of the Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Malayan, Vietnamese and other peoples, the U.S. imperialists elaborated the diabolical misanthropic and racial “doctrine” of’ getting “Asians to fight Asians”. They resort to all kinds of machinations striving to build up mercenary armies in Asia, to revive the Japanese militarist forces to build the Pacific aggressive military bloc.
The entire wisdom and foresight of the peace-loving policy of the Soviet Union and of the Chinese People’s Republic become particularly clear in the light of the present situation.
The stronger Soviet-Chinese friendship and the greater the achievements of the economy and culture of the U.S.S.R. and China, the more savage the malice of the U.S.-British imperialists and their hirelings in international brigandage. Feverishly preparing for a new world war they send to the countries of the socialist camp their agents, spies, saboteurs and assassins in a frantic effort to hold up peaceful construction in the Soviet Union. People’s China and in all the states of people’s democracy. The vigilance of the Soviet and Chinese peoples, the vigilance of the peoples in all countries of the socialist camp, the vigilance of the working people throughout the world is the main weapon especially needed just now in order to expose in good time and mercilessly eliminate the enemies of Socialism, democracy and peace, the foul hirelings of imperialism.
The Soviet-Chinese Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Aid stands guard over the peaceful construction of the new and happy life in the U.S.S.R. and in the Chinese People’s Republic; it serves the. cause of peace and security of the peoples.
Long live the inviolable alliance and the great fraternal friendship of the Soviet and Chinese peoples!
For a Lasting Peace, For a People’s Democracy !
No. 7 (223) FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 13, 1953
OUR BASIC TASKS IN SPHERE OF IDEOLOGICAL WORK ( from speech by Comrade Vylko Tchervenkov at Conference of Party and state leaders and leaders of creative unions convened by the Central Committee and the Council of Ministers, and devoted to work on the ideological front. January 30, 1953.)
Vylko Tchervenkov, General Secretary, Central Committee, Communist Party of Bulgaria
The main purpose of this Conference is critically to analyse our work in carrying out the tasks set by the Party and Government in the sphere of cultural development in 1952.
Have we acted correctly in accentuating: the need for a critical analysis of short. comings and drawbacks, in our work?
Yes, we have acted correctly.
Because in order to consolidate our big successes in the socialist transformation of the country, in order to add to these successes, to further them and in this way accelerate completion of the work of laying the economic foundations of Socialism and begin construction of the edifice of Socialism itself, we must, undoubtedly, overcome the weaknesses and shortcomings which have hampered us and which continue to hamper us. And in order to overcome them we must clearly see them, understand the reason for them, to find the means for eliminating these reasons, and, in this way, eliminate the weaknesses and shortcomings conditioned by them.
This is all the more necessary since the 1953 tasks will be greater and more complex than in the past year and their fulfilment will require better work on the part of all builders of Socialism.
Big success was registered on both the ideological and cultural fronts in 1952. We are making headway. There are no ground whatever for scepticism. On the contrary, we have every reason for looking at the future proudly and confidently. Our economy is making rapid strides, the social-economic transformations are radically changing the face of the country. But we are not advancing on the ideological front at the same rate. It is lagging, lagging considerably compared with the rapid tempo of economic development. And, as is known, the superstructure plays an active rote in relation to its base; it helps to shape and reinforce this base; as Comrade Stalin expressed it, it helps the new system to break and destroy the old base and the old classes. All our institutions and organisations engaged in the dissemination of socialist ideology − the organs of public education, the higher schools, our Academy or Science, publishing houses, radio, cinema, theatres, our literature, fine art and the press − all, in fact, are integral parts of the superstructure and, consequently, upon their active and fruitful work depends the further consolidation of the people’s-democratic institutions, of implanting MarxismLeninism as the dominant ideology in our society in all spheres of knowledge, of speeding up the task of deepening socialist consciousness, of completely and finally smashing each and every reactionary and bourgeois idea and influence. This, precisely, is great help to the cause of the final triumph of the socialist system in our country.
The affirmation of Marxist-Leninist science in all spheres of knowledge as the dominant science, smoking out the ideology of the reactionary bourgeoisie from its last sanctuaries and shelters, deepening the socialist consciousness of the popular masses, constantly strengthening the people’sdemocratic institutions and their effective transforming role − this is the basic task of our ideological front, of our cultural front.
How then is this front fulfilling its basic task? 27
Can we say that our achievements correspond to our rapid economic development, achievements made possible as a result of the liberation of the country from the fetter of imperialist dependence and capitalism, as a result of the aid we are constantly receiving from the Soviet Union?
Clearly, we cannot say this.
We have, as already said, considerable successes, we are going ahead, individual setbacks and mistakes have not made us turn back, but, together with the serious weaknesses which we still have, they prevent us from making speedier headway. On the whole, the ideological front, development of culture, and training of cadres are seriously lagging behind the rapidly growing needs of the situation.
Take, for example, the enormous demand for engineer technical personnel, agrarian and zoo-technical cadres and how this demand is being met and you will see how great is the lag. There is a daily growing demand for skilled personnel, educated in the spirit of Marxism-Leninism, in industry, building, transport and in all other branches of the national economy. We established recently that our country contains industrial deposits of oil, that extraction of Bulgarian oil is quiet possible and what we have to do now is to train personnel for this new and highly promising branch of our industry.
When we reviewed the fulfilment of the 1952 economic plan and analysed the reasons for the weaknesses and shortcomings met with during the year for the purpose of finding the lever on which we must press to open the door to future successes, we arrived at the conclusion that all our efforts must be directed towards enhancing among all our leaders and functionaries consciousness of personal responsibility to the country and the people for accurate and precise fulfilment of assignments, to improve their political and professional qualifications, their ability and their capacity always to work in close contact with the working masses and to leave nothing unfinished.
To raise the work of all state, Party, public, economic and cultural leaders to a level worthy of our people and the tasks of the rapidly developing socialist construction − such is the vital task of the moment.
We drew this conclusion since the analysis of the reasons under lying our weaknesses and shortcomings in the economic sphere show, that in 99 cases out of 100 they result from poor organisation, from insufficient persistence and consistency in carrying out decisions of the Party and Government, from poor knowledge of economic laws, complacency towards shortcomings, indecision or unwillingness to develop widely criticism of shortcomings, to foster the initiative of the working people. These are weaknesses and shortcomings of organisation, of leadership of the work.
The political line of the Party and the Government and our economic plans are correct. What is necessary is that they are thoroughly carried out. And this depends on organising work, on the skill and persistence of the leadership in the broad sense of the word.
Hence, our task is to improve organisational work, resolutely to improve the political and professional skills of the leaders, and the quality of leadership.
This task cannot be solved without developing a hundredfold criticism of shortcomings in work and self
criticism, without creating everywhere an atmosphere of strict irreconcilability in relation to faint-hearted justification of shortcomings by pleading objective reasons, to slow tempos, to negligence, carelessness, bureaucratism, nepotism, irresponsible attitude to state interests, without constantly deepening revolutionary vigilance, without instilling into each and everyone that the given Government plan must absolutely be fulfilled in all respects, qualitatively as well.
How must we act on the ideological front, in the sphere of culture, whenever we see it lagging, whenever in some sphere or other we observe serious shortcomings, mistakes and even failures?
It is evident that this front has its own peculiarities which must be taken into consideration. But how to combat the weaknesses and shortcomings here, on this front, on which lever must we press in order to overcome these weaknesses and shortcomings, in order to open, the door to future successes?
In analysing the shortcomings in work on the ideological front, on the cultural front, can we say that the basic reason for them lies, for example, in the insufficiently clear political line of the work on this front, in inexact and not sufficiently clear elaboration of its basic tasks?
No, we cannot say this.
We cannot say this because both the political line and the basic tasks of the work on this front are clear, elaborated and correct.
What then is the basic reason?
I think that the basic reason is that this correct line and the clearly elaborated tasks on the ideological front are not always, not everywhere, and not carried out consistently by all, to the end.
What, then, is necessary for us always to have success, to win and to multiply our achievements? Naturally, it is necessary above all to have a correct political line and clearlyposed tasks. But this is not enough. It is necessary, Comrade Stalin teaches, that there should be at least two additional prerequisites. First, it is necessary that the correct line and the clearly posed tasks to be carried out diligently and to the end. Secondly, it is necessary to have people, workers, capable of carrying out this line and these tasks to the end. For this purpose it is necessary correctly to select leading cadres, and systematically to verify carrying out of the tasks which in turn bring us back to the question of selecting cadres to leadership.
This means that the main task at the moment in the sphere of ideology and culture too is selection of cadres and verification.
This means that the matter is one of leadership of the ideological front in the broad sense of the word.
We must strain every effort in order to improve this leadership.
It is necessary to ensure conformity with the correct line of the Party in questions of ideological work and persistence and ability to carry it out.
The practical task facing us is to ensure for the ideological front thoroughly-trained theoretical workers who have creatively mastered Marxism-Leninism, militant, high principled cadres irreconcilable to every manifestation of reactionary bourgeois ideology, inflexible and staunch fighters for carrying out the Party line on the ideological front.
For this purpose it is necessary to give the closest attention and care to the work of the higher educational establishments and postgraduate courses.
For this purpose it is necessary to devote the closest attention and care to training teachers for our schools.
For this purpose it, is necessary to devote the closest attention and care to large-scale development of Marxist Leninist self-education among our intelligentsia.
A peculiarity of our social development after September 9, 1949, is that the vast majority of our intelligentsia adopted a favourable attitude to people’s rule, stepped out with it and is marching forward with it.
This is a plus for people’s rule. A major plus. But what follows from this?
It follows that, first, it is necessary further to consolidate the alliance of the working class and the working peasantry with the intelligentsia; secondly, not to weaken but, on the contrary, to intensify educational work, self-educational work among the intelligentsia − that section of the intelligentsia which for long was under the ideological influence of the bourgeoisie − to help it rid itself completely of this influence, to help all accept, not through fear, but consciously, the Marxist-Leninist teaching, the sole correct science of the laws of development of nature and society; thirdly, boldly to promote the new intelligentsia from the rank of the working class and the working peasantry.
The task is to ensure that our intelligentsia becomes a people’s intelligentsia in the real sense of the word. In present conditions there can be no genuinely people’s intelligentsia without Marxist-Leninist ideology.
All our intelligentsia must be brought into the work of assimilating Marxism-Leninism by way of self-education, courses and schools, post-graduate courses and correspondence courses − this is what is needed today.
But the task of raising the leadership of the ideological front to the level of the political line will not be carried out unless we subject all the work on the ideological front to the fire of criticism and sell-criticism. We will not achieve lasting success unless, alongside correct and necessary demonstration of our progress, we develop criticism of shortcomings in science, in literature, in the fine arts, in the theatre, music, in the other forms of art and in the press.
Some comrades fear criticism. But such fears are harmful.
Criticism of shortcomings aims at eradicating shortcomings and not those responsible for them. On the contrary, only by means of criticising their shortcomings those responsible for them can get rid of them, do better work and, win the respect of society.
The biggest weakness on the cultural front is the almost complete absence of systematic and high-principled criticism, − criticism which is relentless in relation to enemy influence, strict in relation to vulgarisation, but which furthers, helps and displays consideration for all that is new, necessary and useful.
We must and will develop criticism of this kind. And, if I may say so, we shall develop it also together with the comrades who essayed their pens in the sphere of criticism but who made mistakes, grave mistakes, and who are now silent, as if silence were the best cure for mistakes; and we shall develop it without them, too, should they prove incapable of understanding the simple truth that the best way to go ahead after acknowledging one’s error is to participate even more vigorously in work so that everyone can see that no matter how serious the mistake was, it was a fortuitous thing, and can be rectified.
The talk that some comrades are afraid to write after the well known articles that appeared in “Rabotnichesko Delo” concerning the unfortunate criticism of “Tobacco” (“Tobacco” − a novel by Dimitr Dymov, Bulgarian writer, subjected to severe, but unwarranted criticism. An article in “Rabotnichesko Delo” condemned this criticism. (Ed.). ) and of the even criticism of “Delyana” (“Delyana” − an unsuccessful operetta about present-day, rural life in Bulgaria, which was lauded by reviewers. “Rabotnichesko Delo” came out against it and evaluated it as being vulgar, ideologically vicious and harmful (Ed.).) is harmful talk and is a useless cover for lack of principle and civic faint-heartedness. This should be clearly stated in order to put an end to this unworthy talk.
With these well-known articles “Rabotnichesko Delo” rendered an important service and help to the Bulgarian cultural front, to our literary and dramatic critique. Who would maintain that this was not helpful? And this being the case why should anyone be afraid and be reluctant to write? Is that how Soviet creative workers and critics react when “Pravda” criticises them? Fadeyev can re-write “The Young Guard”, Shostakovich can listen to just criticism, be inspired and write new, more perfect works. But some of our comrades in the literary field regard as an insuperable obstacle the criticism made of their work by “Rabotnichesko Delo”, central organ of the Party!
There are still many negative habits, prejudices and notions embedded in the minds of no small number of our workers on the ideological front, on the cultural front; bourgeois and pettybourgeois influence has not yet been overcome; there are still unprincipled “friendly” circles, special “associations” with the tacit and here and there also with the openly proclaimed motto “Don’t touch me and 1 won’t interfere with you”. Can there be any doubt that if we do not overcome the negative hang-overs from the past, if we do not completely purify the atmosphere, do not open murderous fire against absence of principle, against coteries, false friendliness, against the philistine morality of sacrificing the public interest to personal interest, to one’s own “ego”, we shall not achieve lasting success in the sphere of our culture. And we want to achieve it and we shall achieve it. In order to do so we must make every effort to set on its feet, develop and systematically strengthen literary, dramatic, musical and art criticism and self-criticism, criticism and self-criticism in the fine arts and in science, to develop real emulation for works worthy of our people.
Comrades scientific workers, scholars, writers, artists, composers, actors, professors, teachers and journalists! Comrades in the leadership of the Committee for Science, Art and Culture, in the leadership of People’s Education, of the Writers’ Union and other cultural unions! Success on the cultural front depends on your correct work, on it depends the level of the socialist consciousness of our people. Do not become reconciled to shortcomings, weaknesses, and errors, boldly adopt criticism as the basic method of work, show no mercy for laziness, negligence, discrepancy between words and deeds; no mercy for the scamped work, for the average work of 34
those who can and who should work in an exemplary way; drive from your midst the unprincipled coteries, greediness, putrid self-glorification, neglect of the collective; tirelessly raise your ideological, Marxist-Leninist training, your professional qualifications; strengthen yourself as true fighters for the cause of our ascending socialist homeland, and battle, battle, comrades, for the carrying out of the correct general line of our glorious Party!
That is what is asked of you.
You are asked to ensure a constant creative upsurge in the work all along the ideological front, in developing our culture. All the conditions exist for this.
Our nation is a young nation − full of vital energy, diligent, bold and capable. It produced Vasil Levsky, Hristo Botev, Ivan Vasov, Smirnensky and Vapsarov. It gave the world Georgi Dimitrov. That is only the beginning. It can and shall give the world scholars and writers, poets and artists, composers and actors. I am deeply convinced of this. Both the small and big nations have equal access to the treasury of world culture. So let us roll up our sleeves, all of us to the last man work as the Party directs us, as Georgi Dimitrov bequested us, as the example of the great Soviet Union and Comrade STALIN teach us − and we shall reap successes unprecedented for our country, shall ensure for it an upsurge such as even its brightest minds could not dream of in the past. 35
For a Lasting Peace, For a People’s Democracy !
No. 7 (223) FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 13, 1953
FIFTH ANNIVERSARY OF FEBRUARY VICTORY OF WORKING PEOPLE OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA.
Vaclav Kopecky, Member, Presidium, Central Committee, Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
The working people of Czechoslovakia celebrate the fifth anniversary of the events of February 1948 when they, under the leadership of their beloved Communist Party and their leader Klement Gottwald, frustrated the attempt by bourgeois reaction to effect a counter-revolutionary coup and, having won a smashing victory, completely cleared the way for building Socialism in Czechoslovakia.
The victory of February 1948 was of historical significance for toe successful development of our country which was given its freedom in May 1945 by the glorious heroes of the Soviet Army. Today this victory stands out in all its brilliance as a triumph of the force of the working class, as a victory of the new system over the forces of the old world trying in vain to reverse the wheel of history.
While the working people of Czechoslovakia joyfully celebrate the fifth anniversary of the victorious February, the imperialist instigators of hostile intrigues against the countries of the socialist camp are experiencing moments of bitter recollection, because, February 25, 1948 signified the ignominious failure of the schemes of the U.S. imperialists. They wanted to help the Czechoslovak bourgeoisie once again to take power into their hands. Instead, they had to witness how, during five dramatic days, the attempted counterrevolutionary coup was frustrated by the revolutionary forces of the people of Czechoslovakia.
They tried to overthrow the people’s democratic system in Czechoslovakia and to arrest the development of the country along the path of Socialism. Instead, they had to witness how the people of Czechoslovakia, after the victorious February, consolidated their people’s-democratic rule and confidently took the path of socialist construction. They tried, in the interest of their war plans •. to undermine the friendly allied relations of the Czechoslovak Republic with the Soviet Union, but instead they had to stand by and see how, after the victorious February, our country rallied still closer around the U.S.S.R., made its bonds with the fraternal people’s-democratic countries stronger and added considerably to its weight in the camp of peace.
The U.S. imperialists are all the more bitter because they have suffered another defeat in Czechoslovakia as a result of the smashing of the treacherous Slansky gang. The American imperialists banked heavily on this gang. This is evident from the lamentations for these traitor in the capitalist West. As is known, Truman and Eisenhower in special speeches in New York mourned the end of Slansky and his accomplices. Up to this very day the imperialists in the West complain that their agency was smashed in Czechoslovakia, an agency made up of Trotskyite-Titoite, bourgeois-nationalist and Zionist elements, complain that the attempts to build an imperialist fifth column behind the back of the people of Czechoslovakia were frustrated. The enemies are enraged, seeing that the working people of Czechoslovakia, constantly enhancing their revolutionary vigilance, are determined to deal ruthlessly with anyone who dares to encroach on their homeland, on the victories of Socialism, on the great cause for which thousands of the heroic sons of the valiant Soviet Army and the glorious patriots of our homeland sacrificed their lives.
Today it is also evident that the working people of Czechoslovakia, by smashing the anti-state conspiracy centre headed by Slansky, also struck at the conspiracy web which extended beyond the boundaries of Czechoslovakia. Striking confirmation of this is the exposure of the subversive, espionage activity of the Jewish bourgeois nationalists. The exposure of the subversive machinations of the Zionist elements in other people’s-democratic countries, the unmasking of the gang of doctor killers in the Soviet Union and the additional evidence testifying to the espionagesubversive activity of the Zionists, irrefutably prove that world Zionism, which relies on the U.S. monopolies and the state of Israel, is a criminal weapon in the hands of American imperialism, that it is used for hatching plots in the people’sdemocratic countries, for preparing a new world war.
The working people of Czechoslovakia have demonstrated that they are determined relentlessly to smash this enemy, as is demanded by the interests of our country, the interests of peace, democracy and Socialism.
The Czechoslovak working masses celebrate the fifth anniversary of the February victory fully confident that no intrigues on the part of the imperialist enemies and their foul agents can halt our victorious march along the path of Socialism. Having rid themselves, by smashing the Slansky gang, of particularly dangerous enemies and, wreckers, the working people of Czechoslovakia feel themselves sufficiently strong to tackle the building of Socialism with renewed energy. The national conference of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia held in December 1952 acted as a tremendous stimulus to creative labour on the part of our people. This conference acquired an exceptional significance because it registered as its task the consolidation of the strength of our Party and the unfolding of its further activity in the spirit of the decisions of the historic XIX Congress of the C.P.S.U., in the spirit of the new ideas contained in Comrade Stalin’s brilliant work “Economic Problems of Socialism in the U.S.S.R.”.
The working people of Czechoslovakia celebrate the fifth anniversary of the triumphant February under the slogan of outstanding successes in building Socialism, under the slogan of the new great tasks scheduled for the current year.
At the XIX Congress of the C.P.S.U. Comrade Stalin named our country, together with the other countries of people’s democracy, a “Shock-brigade” of the world revolutionary and working-class movement. On the occasion of the fifth anniversary of victorious February the working people of Czechoslovakia pledge that they will spare no effort in order always to be worthy of this noble title.
For a Lasting Peace, For a People’s Democracy !
Bucharest. Organ of the Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers’ Parties
No. 8 (224) FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 20, 1953