The concept of nation does not always and under all circumstances have the same content. Because the type of society it reflects and expresses cannot always remain the same under all circumstances. It changes.
The basic principle of dialectics teaches us that everything is already conditioned by place and time, that is, it changes over time and place. There is nothing that does not change. So nations also change. The concept of nation has one meaning when describing the old nation, and another when describing the new nation. The Russian nation, which was mentioned in the conditions of Tsarism and after the February 1917 revolution, is different from the Russian nation that emerged after the October 1917 Revolution, when the Russian bourgeoisie was overthrown and the proletariat came to power. In the first, the bourgeoisie is part of the nation. Even in power. And the nation is a bourgeois nation. In the second, the bourgeoisie is no longer part of the nation. The proletariat is in power. And the nation is now a socialist nation.
The Russian nation is the Russian nation. But now it has changed. As can be seen, the concept of nation was used with two different contents. Place and time have changed. The Russian nation has changed. The concept of nation we use while describing the Russian nation has also changed. After all, we are not simply dialecticians. We are also materialists. The concepts we use are the words we use to describe the changing nature, society and ideas. As the nation we are dealing with has changed, the meaning of the word nation we use when talking about that nation has also changed. Both the person who uses that word and the person who hears and reads this usage must be aware of this simple fact.
It will be seen that the "modern nations" Stalin mentioned in his first writings in which he defined the nation, were bourgeois nations of that period. After the former Tsarist Russia was destroyed and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics consisting of dozens of socialist nations was established in its place, that is, after the socialist nations were formed, there was no trace left of the "modern" of the bourgeois nations. Now they are all backward and reactionary nations. The fact that the Socialist nations have been defeated or destroyed today does not change this fact. The world has seen socialist nations, socialist nations have been born, and now only socialist nations are modern nations. Bourgeois nations are obsolete, dead decaying while living, because they are dead, and destroying the world as they decay. All of them, with no exception, must be urgently changed, transformed into modern nations, into socialist nations. Otherwise, the world will not be a nice place for the nations.
In pre-capitalist conditions, communities speaking the same language were being separated from each other by different feudal principalities due to the type of local economic activity, and political borders were drawn between them, even while living in the same lands and having common cultural tendencies. They had to adapt to different political authority. For this reason, life, which was common in terms of land, language and culture, developed and existed in the direction of division, not in the direction of unification. However, the type of economic activity initiated by the bourgeoisie, the type of economic activity shaped around the creation of the common market, also guarantees the territorial, linguistic and cultural unity on the basis of the economic union formed around the common market, thus uniting these divided societies as a bourgeois nation and forming a bourgeois nation. It is the bourgeoisie, which forms the bourgeois nations around bourgeois economic activity, with a bourgeois national culture and bourgeois moral understanding, destroys the feudal borders between them in this formation process, establishes a central political authority and establishes a territorial unity, thus forming a unification and a single language instead of the tendency for disintegration in the language. The creator of the bourgeois nation is the bourgeoisie.
A historically formed and stable human community with a unity of language, land, culture and economic life. A type of society shaped by the bourgeoisie on the basis of bourgeois economic activity during the periods under investigation by Stalin. Bourgeois society. Bourgeois nation.
With the October 1917 revolution, the proletariat stepped in as an active element in the activity of forming a nation. First, it changed the existing bourgeois nation. It destroyed the bourgeoisie as a class, transformed the economic activity of the bourgeois nation into socialist economic activity on the basis of common ownership, and formed socialist nations by transforming the bourgeois cultural and moral structure into a proletarian cultural and moral structure.
Secondly, it shaped the peoples who lived in pre-capitalist conditions and were not yet formed as bourgeois nations, as socialist nations under his own leadership, on the basis of socialist economic activity, with a proletarian culture and moral understanding. Here we also see the benefit and ease of proletarian power and the formation of nations as socialist nations by the proletariat in ensuring territorial unity in the formation of nations. The powerful bourgeois crush and divide such nations, while the proletariat supports and unites them. On the one hand, a mass of barriers produced to prevent nations from forming as bourgeois nations, and the smashing of nations and their destruction and gradual destruction by war and starvation. On the other hand, their rapid development and unification as socialist nations.
On the one hand, bourgeois national formation—or rather, non-national formation. On the other hand, proletarian national formation, solidarity, development, national and international unification.
Such is the short dialectic of national development.